Posts Tagged ‘3rd dan grading’

4th DanI am lucky enough to travel regularly for kendo and have been a panellist for or assisted with grading examinations in a number of countries over the past few years. During this time I have noticed that it is generally becoming more difficult to pass 3rd dan.

In the past it was often enough for a candidate to show correct waza and good posture to pass this grade. In some ways it was seen as a more polished version of 2nd dan.  Now, I feel that it is becoming the watershed that 4th dan used to be.

An experience that I have not had for quite a few years is to watch a prefectural grading in Japan, but I have been told by a number of senior sensei that the bar has been raised there too. Japanese grading panels now look for sharpness (sae) of strikes and for the ability to make opportunities through seme (breaking your opponent’s centre) or hikidasu (pulling him in), for third dan candidates in the way they looked at 4th dan in the past.

Although  purely conjecture on my part,  I imagine that this is a reflection of the fact that since 9th dan was discontinued, the kodansha grades of 8th, 7th and 6th dan have become more difficult to attain and slowly but surely there has been a trickle-down effect on the grades below.

Third dan seems to be particularly in the firing line, because 4th dan was traditionally seen as the point where strong kihaku (strength of spirit), seme and hikidasu were required to augment the technique learned up to that stage.  These elements now seem to be required for 3rd dan too.

Third dan candidates still need the basics of good cutting technique, posture and ki ken tai-itchi, but must now demonstrate the ability to control and dominate the opponent and to make sharp effective attacks at the right time.

Show the examiners that you mean business by ensuring that you are tuned into your opponent from the time you step into the shinsa-jo. Engage your partner’s attention and keep eye contact from the moment you start to bow. Then take three confident steps into simultaneous sonkyo before standing-up together. Allow the time to read each other and show strong kiai before an attack is made.

To prepare you should ensure that you work on creating correct opportunities in jigeiko and by including seme and hikidasu in your basic uchikomi drills. If you are able to combine good basic kendo with the ability to control your opponent at this stage, you should have a great foundation for the rest of your kendo career.

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This week I received a request to outline the qualities required to  pass the grading examinations up to 5th dan. I recentlyposted on the both the 4th and 5th dan examinations and on the difference between ikkyu and shodan, so I will not go back over the same ground; instead I will talk in more detail about 2nd and 3rd dan requirements.

I have in front of me the ZNKR instructions to examiners from 1998. These may have been since updated or replaced, but these definitions may give you some idea about how much reliance is put on the judgment of individual examiners.

 “A person who is eligible for 2nd-dan shall have learned Kendo basics and his/her skills are in a satisfactory level.”

“A person who is eligible for 3rd-dan shall have learned Kendo basics and applications and his/her skills are in a satisfactory level.”

Not a lot to go on really. The only difference is the introduction of the word “applications” which gives the clue that examiners are looking for the “why” as well as the “how”.

From my own perspective, I believe that there is a clear difference between the two grades. As with sho-dan, nidan requires good basics incorporating ki-ken-tai-ichi. At this level shikake waza is important. You should be able to move correctly and strike men, dou and kote with full spirit and commitment. Your cutting action should be relaxed and correct with the point of the shinai going forward rather than back towards your own nose. In addition it helps if you are able to demonstrate one or two ni-dan waza to show that you have the balance, control and acceleration to make successive attacks.

At this stage seme and tame are not specifically required, but you need to show an appreciation of opportunity and timing so that you can make clear clean attacks rather than sink into a succession of pointless ai-uchi.

For third dan the picture starts to change, as per the subtle suggestion of the ZNKR. We are now looking for all that ni-dan had to offer but with a stronger understanding of timing and opportunity, including the use of oji-waza. As well as the ability to hit your opponent at an opportune moment, you need to create some opportunities to attack. This is where you sow the seeds of seme. Whilst a long way from the strong seme required for 4th and 5th dan or the push / pull ability of the kodansha ranks, you need to create some opportunity by either pushing through the centre or tempting him or her to come forward into your distance.

In both cases there is no need to rush or panic, but better to find one or two clear opportunities to attack; and whatever you do, do not cower or attempt to block your opponent’s strikes. We are judging you on what you can do, not what he can’t.

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